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Selected references

When you drink the water, remember the spring, Chinese Proverb

(3/06) The Ground Water Resources of Southeastern Wisconsin (and thoughts on how to sustain them) by Douglas Cherkauer, Professor of Hydrogeology, Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee ((this is a large file and may take time to download)

(3/06) Regime Shifts in Lake Ecosystems: Pattern and Variation by Stephen R. Carpenter University of Wisconsin-Madison

February 22, 2005, Public Policy Forum, Southeastern Wisconsin Water Supply Issues And Regional Water Supply Planning Program Overview

Groundwater use and it's consequences in Wisconsin, by Ken Bradbury, Wisconsin Geological and Naural History Survey, UWEX

Water Levels (Point to Fragile Groundwater Conditions): (added 5/05)
The attached file has two slides on it.  One is a graph of water levels at a location at the south end of the lake (Koehler) and the other is at the north (Bitter).  At each location we have two wells (drive points), side-by-side.  The shallow well is 8 feet deep and the deep well is 16 feet deep.  The purpose of these wells is to determine the vertical groundwater flow gradient.  Essentially, the water levels in the wells represent potential energy.  If the potential energy is greater in the deep well (i.e., the water level is higher than in the adjacent shallow well), there is an upward groundwater flow gradient, and groundwater is discharging to the lake.  As you can see, in most cases the Koehler site has an upward gradient, and the Bitter site has downward.  As we discussed this afternoon, this indicates that the lake is taking in groundwater at the south, and losing water to the groundwater system at the north.  You can also see from the graphs that the conditions are not always constant.  This is especially the case with Koehler, where the gradient is not typically very large, indicating that the condition is very fragile.
This brings up two important issues:  First, the gradient can be “damaged” quite easily.  Second, the groundwater discharge is not around the entire lake, as has been the claim of the Village’s consultant; it is primarily at the south end. Therefore, pumping at the south end essentially does double damage.
Robert J. Nauta, P.G.
Senior Hydrogeologist
RSV Engineering, Inc.

"Development of a groundwater flow model for the Mukwonago River watershed, southeastern Wisconsin," State of Wisconsin Joint Solicitation of Groundwater and Related Research/Monitoring Proposals for Fiscal Year 2004.
HTML copy
PDF file

East Troy Village Well Status PDF file

"Take Action: Ground Water Protection," Clean

"Wisconsin Water: Our Way of Life," Clean Don't miss the section on "Is WI running out of groundwater?" PDF file

Background Information:

North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research (added 5/05)

Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Water, by Robert Glennon, Island Press, 2002. ( (added 5/05)

"Technical Report No. 37," Groundwater Resources of Southeastern Wisconsin (PDF file) Pages 67-88 are the most pertinent to our situation.

Managing the Mukwonago," Companion site for Managing the Mukwonago, a workshop on Integrated Water Resources Management
Summary of a workshop on water management issues in the Mukwonago River Watershed, which includes Lake Beulah. Presentation slides are included; the presentations of Bahr and Kraft are of special relevance to the well issue.

"Ground Water and Surface Water a Single Resourct," USGS
Introduction to groundwater, surface water, and their interrelationship in wells and related geological structures.

"Ground Water in the Great Lakes Basin: The Case of Southeastern Wisconsin," USGS Overview of groundwater issues in Southeastern Wisconsin

"Regional Water Supply Planning Program Prospectus (PDF file)," Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission

2003 Wisconsin Act 310 PDF file

Send "well" comments to:
Lake Beulah Management District
P.O. Box 71
East Troy, WI 53120

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